Plenary Sessions



All sessions listed below are Plenary Sessions and are of general interest. These sessions were held on the mornings of Friday, Saturday and Sunday and were attended by all participants. 

The symbol indicates that the presentation is available on audiotape.

Friday, April 20, 2001
8:00am - 12:15pm
8:00 am - 8:30 am
Opening Ceremony
, including an Honor Guard & presentation of colors & welcomes by Drs. Mitchell & Everly

8:30 am - 9:45 am
The Worcester Cold Storage Warehouse Fire: Reflection on a Disaster  
Hayden A. Duggan, EdD, Valerie Duggan, LICSW & Sandy Scerra, EMT

This presentation explores the tragedy of Dec. 3, 1999 that took the lives of six firefighters in Worcester, Mass.  The disaster is introduced through video clips. On scene CISM coverage, provided 24 hours a day for eight days, & the follow-up interventions through the past year will be covered through personal stories. This presentation will discuss the CISM work  done for the families & children of the firefighters in the year since the tragedy. 

10:15 am - 11:00 am
Raymond B. Flannery, Jr., PhD

The Assaulted Staff Action Program (ASAP) is a CISM approach for staff victims of patient assault.  ASAP offers important empirical support for CISM. Presentation reviews the first ten years of findings in the ASAP program, focuses on characteristics of the patient assailants & staff victims, impact of ASAP crisis interventions in addressing acute stress disorder, reductions in levels of violence in facilities with ASAP, & the structural integrity of the ASAP model.

11:00 am - 12:15 pm
The Aftermath of the Shootings at Columbine High School  
Patricia L. Tritt, RN, MA, Nancy J. Rich, MA, LPC, CTS, Nancy K. Bohl, PhD, & Carol L. Hacker, PhD, CTS, CEAP, NCC

The shooting at Columbine High School in 1999 riveted the attention of the nation & produced widespread & long term effects throughout the community. Presenters focus on crisis intervention strategies that worked, those that were sub-optimal, & on-going challenges for three  populations: emergency responders, the schools, & the community.


Saturday, April 21, 2001
8:00am - 12:15pm

8:00 am - 9:00 am
Lessons from Jonesboro, Littleton, & Vietnam: PTSD & Therapeutic Processes for Mass Casualties Resulting from Violent Crime  
Lt. Col. Dave Grossman

Col. Grossman’s presentation includes: a virus of violence in America & worldwide, its causes, & its effect; psychological cost of conflict; physiology & psychology of a conflict situation; insight into etiology of PTSD; how to prevent PTSD through early intervention; & critical aspects of the initial group debriefing process.

9:00 am - 9:30 am
The Implementation & Lessons Learned from a Crisis Management Briefing After a Hostage Situation
Jeff Lating, PhD 
The “crisis management briefing” is a CISM intervention for use after mass casualty events, terrorist acts, disasters & other critical incidents affecting large groups of people. In March 2000, Joseph Palczynski went on a 2-week rampage, culminating in holding hostages for 98 hours. After hostages escaped & police killed Palczynski, the surrounding community permeated with fear, frustration & anger. The presenter reports on the outcome & lessons learned from the crisis management briefings held in response to psychological discord in the community.

9:30 am - 10:00 am
Treating Psychological Trauma & PTSD
John P. Wilson, PhD
Employing an integrated psychological approach, Dr. Wilson will define & describe PTSD.  He will offer precise guidelines & multiple strategies for the treatment of PTSD.  Additionally, he will address the treatment of special trauma populations.

10:30 am - 11:00 am
CISM in a Combat Environment
John S.  Kennedy, LCDR, MC, USN  

The crew of the USS Cole suffered an unexpected loss from a poorly defined threat in an austere, isolated location.  The nine-person team from Sigonella Naval Hospital developed & continuously updated an intervention plan tailored to the unique psychological & military situation.

11:00 am - 11:45 am
Alaska Airlines Flight 261: The American Red Cross Response 
Bonnita Wirth, PhD, Trina Hole, MFT, CTS, Steve Froehlich, PhD, MFT, & Christine “Dusty” Bowenkamp, RN, CTS

On Jan. 3, 2000, Alaska Airlines flight 261 crashed into the Pacific Ocean near Point Magu, Calif. killing all 88 passengers on board. This session will detail organization of the Red Cross response,  complexity of the multi-agency collaboration demanded in aviation disasters, impact of being a member of the response team, utilization of CISM tools in a response of this nature, & the planning & occurrence of the one-year anniversary memorial.

11:45 am - 12:15 pm
The Debriefing “Controversy”

George S. Everly, Jr., PhD, FAPM, CTS

Is crisis intervention effective? Is debriefing effective? These issues are clouded by the lack of a generally agreed upon lexicon. This presentation reviews the terms that are essential in understanding the CISM field. The most recent research in CISD and CISM will also be addressed.

Sunday, April 22, 2001
8:00am - 1:00pm

8:00 am - 8:30 am  
CISM: Making a Difference

Jeffrey T. Mitchell, PhD, CTS

This presentation will provide a practitioner’s guide to enhancing CISM interventions & explore the impact of peer support personnel on the field of CISM.

8:30 am - 9:15 am  
New Mexico on Fire — Statewide CISM Response
Deb Boehme, PhD

The summer of 2000 was the worst in history for forest fires in NM.  The NM CISM team was involved at the shelters & accompanied residents back to their burnt-out homes.  It is also involved in a FEMA funded project that will be providing CISM interventions for residents for the next year.

9:15 am - 10:00 am  
Texas A & M Bonfire Collapse

District Chief Vaughn Donaldson, EMT-P, BCETS

The presenter examines the CISM response to the Texas A&M Bonfire Collapse that injured 28 students & killed 12. Includes discussion of far reaching effects of such an incident, politics of disasters, lessons learned, & the importance of a standardized but flexible approach to disaster interventions.

10:30 am - 11:15 am
Peer Programs: A Proactive Response Model with Management Support

David Ryan & Stephen Hollowood

A proactive approach to staff, following exposure to a critical incident, offers an environment that may defuse emotional responses early & prevent  build up of cumulative stress factors. Management needs to support such a program, but at what cost & in what timeframe?

11:15 am - 12:00 am  
The Austrian Tunnel Tragedy

Karoline Verena Greimel, PhD & Clemens Hausmann, PhD

The tunnel fire in Kaprun, Austria broke out in a train to one of the prime winter sports regions in Austria, killing 155 people on the season’s opening day. The presenters - leading members of the psychological emergency-response team in Salzburg - will inform about the situation in Kaprun, the range & depth of their interventions, the cooperation with other crisis responders of various professions & the short- & long-term effects of their work known at this time. Since it was the first time CISM-interventions were implemented in Salzburg’s general crisis response activities, the presenters will also discuss “start-up problems” that occurred.

12:00 pm - 12:30 pm
Lessons Learned & US Government’s New Initiatives in Responding to Victims of Terrorists Abroad

Kathryn McKay Turman

Ms. Turman discusses the US Dept. of Justice response to victims of terrorism abroad, lessons learned & the new US government initiatives being developed through her office.  She will provide information on initiatives that will have an impact on response, treatment & services.  

12:30 pm - 1:00 pm  
Lessons Learned: What the Last Two Years Has Taught Us About the Future
Jeffrey T. Mitchell, PhD, CTS  & George S. Everly, Jr., PhD, FAPM, CTS

The last two years have yielded significant successes. They have also provided opportunity for improvement as well as a look at the challenges of the future.  These topics as well as a direction for the next two years for the field of CISM will be addressed.


International Critical Incident Stress Foundation, Inc.
3290 Pine Orchard Lane
Suite 106
Ellicott City, MD 21042
Phone:(410) 750-9600
Fax:(410) 750-9601